Africa is the world’s second largest and second most-populous continent. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth’s total surface area and 20.4% of its total land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world’s human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.
Africa is source of most of the world’s natural resources.
In what has become known as a “scramble for Africa”, tEuropean interests, carved up the continent according to their economic interests at the Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (German: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz) . European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period was regulated amongst Europeans. This coincided with Germany’s sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany; its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.
The newest country formed in 2011 is South Sudan.
Egypt, Libya, Ethiopia are names referenced in ancient Biblical scriptures.
|Official State Name (English)||Capital||National State Name|
|Algeria, People’s Democratic Republic Of||Algiers||Al Jaza’ir|
|Angola, Republic of||Luanda||Angola|
|Benin, Republic of||Porto-Novo (official)
Cotonou (seat of government)
|Botswana, Republic of||Gaborone||Botswana|
|Burkina Faso||Oaugadougou||Burkina Faso|
|Burundi, Republic of||Bujumbura||Burundi|
|Cabo Verde, Republic of (Cabo Verde)||Praia||Cabo Verde|
|Cameroon, Republic of||Yaoundé||Cameroon / Cameroun|
|Central African Republic (CAR)||Bangui||Republique Centrafricaine|
|Chad, Republic of||N’Djamena||Tchad / Tshad|
|Comoros, Union of the||Moroni||Komori (Comorian)
Juzur al Qamar (Arabic)
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the (DRC)||Kinshasa||Republique Democratique du Congo (RDC)|
|Congo, Republic of the||Brazzaville||Congo|
|Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)||Yamoussoukro (official)
Abidjan (administrative seat)
|Djibouti, Republic of||Djibouti||Djibouti / Jibuti|
|Egypt, Arab Republic of||Cairo||Misr|
|Equatorial Guinea, Republic of||Malabo||Guinea Ecuatorial/Guinee Equatoriale|
|Eritrea, State of||Asmara||Ertra|
|Ethiopia, Federal Democratic Republic of||Addis Ababa||Ityop’iya|
|Gabonese Republic, (Gabon)||Libreville||Gabon|
|Gambia, Republic of The||Banjul||The Gambia|
|Ghana, Republic of||Accra||Ghana|
|Guinea, Republic of||Conakry||Guinee|
|Guinea-Bissau, Republic of||Bissau||Guine-Bissau|
|Kenya, Republic of||Nairobi||Kenya|
|Lesotho, Kingdom of||Maseru||Lesotho|
|Liberia, Republic of||Monrovia||Liberia|
|Madagascar, Republic of||Antananarivo||Madagascar / Madagasikara|
|Malawi, Republic of||Lilongwe||Malawi|
|Mali, Republic of||Bamako||Mali|
|Mauritania, Islamic Republic of||Nouakchott||Muritaniyah|
|Mauritius, Republic of||Port Louis||Mauritius|
|Morocco, Kingdom of||Rabat||Al Maghrib|
|Mozambique, Republic of||Maputo||Mocambique|
|Namibia, Republic of||Windhoek||Namibia|
|Niger, Republic of||Niamey||Niger|
|Nigeria, Federal Republic of||Abuja||Nigeria|
|**Reunion (an Overseas Department of France)||Paris, France
|Rwanda, Republic of||Kigali||Rwanda|
| **Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha
(a British Overseas Territory)
(administrative centre= Jamestown,
|Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha|
|São Tomé and Principe, Democratic Republic of||São Tomé||São Tomé e Principe|
|Senegal, Republic of||Dakar||Senegal|
|Seychelles, Republic of||Victoria||Seychelles|
|Sierra Leone, Republic of||Freetown||Sierra Leone|
|Somalia, Federal Republic of||Mogadishu||Soomaaliya|
|South Africa, Republic of||Pretoria||South Africa|
|South Sudan, Republic of||Juba||South Sudan|
|Sudan, Republic of the||Khartoum||As-Sudan|
|Swaziland, Kingdom of||Mbabane (official)
Lobamba (royal and legislative capital)
|Tanzania, United Republic of||Dodoma (official)
Dar es Salaam (former capital and seat of executive)
|Togolese Republic (Togo)||Lomé||Republique Togolaise|
|Tunisia, Republic of||Tunis||Tunis|
|Uganda, Republic of||Kampala||Uganda|
| **Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Western Sahara)
[state recognized by the African Union but claimed by Morocco]
|El-Aaiún (Laayoune) (official)
|Sahrawi / Saharawi|
|Zambia, Republic of||Lusaka||Zambia|
|Zimbabwe, Republic of||Harare||Zimbabwe|
diamonds, salt, gold, iron, cobalt, uranium,copper, bauxite, silver, petroleum and cocoa beans, but also woods and tropical fruits., beef, fish, coltan, uranium, water, sunshine, fertile land.
Africa Natural Resources mapped
“How big is Africa? You can see from this map created by Kai Krause, that Africa is large. If you combine the USA, China, India, Europe and Japan – they all fit into the continent of Africa. The US can fit comfortably no less than three times. The UK can fit into Africa over 120 times. Even those of us who were educated in Africa may be surprised at these statistics. That’s because the geography books at school tend to originate from Europe or the US, and show a proportionally skewed perspective of the world.”
Interesting facts that you might not know about Africa:
* All of Africa was colonized by foreign powers during the “scramble for Africa”, except Ethiopia & Liberia.
*There are 54 countries & 1 “non-self governing territory”, the Western Sahara, in Africa.
*Africa is the 2nd most populous continent with about 1.1 billion people or 16% of the world’s population.
*Arabic is spoken by 170 million people on the continent, followed in popularity by English (130 million), Swahili (100), French (115), Berber (50), Hausa (50), Portuguese (20) & Spanish (10).
*Over 25% of all languages are spoken only in Africa with over 2,000 recognised languages spoken on the continent.
*There are over 1 million Chinese citizens on the African continent. Angola alone has a population of over 350,000 Chinese.
*The Serengeti (Tanzania) hosts the world’s largest wildlife migration on Earth with over 750,000 zebra marching ahead of 1.2 million wildebeest as they cross the amazing landscape.
*The Nile River is the longest river in the world with a total length of 6,650 kilometres.
*Lake Malawi has more fish species than any other freshwater system on earth
*Africa has over 85% of the world’s elephants & over 99% of the remaining lions are on the African continent.
*The Sahara is the largest desert in the world & is bigger than the continental USA.